Managing heavy-traffic WordPress site has many challenges, and
one of them is a database. The database is
known for utilizing high resources like CPU,
Memory, IO so it would be a good idea to host the
A typical WordPress site would be something like below.
Where all the software Nginx/Apache, PHP, WordPress,
MySQL/MariaDB is running on the same server.
Having everything on the same server is ok for small to medium
traffic, but if are managing a
heavy-traffic website and optimizing each layer for
optimal performance then you may want to
decouple the database server.
There are two possible ways to do that.
- Host database on different server
- Use Google Cloud Managed SQL
If you are ready to spend time & put efforts in managing
database, then that would be cool. However, if you are not
ready for it, then you can avail Google Cloud Managed SQL .
What is Google Cloud SQL?
Cloud SQL is high-performance managed database
(MySQL & PostgreSQL) service by Google. You don’t have to
worry about installation, managing, performance optimization.
You pay what you use and let Google handle the database
Google Cloud SQL can be integrated with App
Engine, Compute Engine or any other hosting/service including
your local workstation.
Setting up database replication, High-availability, automatic
failover doesn’t require database skills and you configure them
using Google console.
Ready to see how Cloud SQL works with
Scenario – I have a WordPress site hosted on
Google Cloud (Compute Engine) where everything is running on a
single server. I will do the following to separate the
- Create a Cloud SQL Instance
- Export the data from existing MySQL database
- Import the data to Cloud SQL
- Allow Cloud SQL to be connected from existing WordPress
- Change WordPress configuration to connect to Cloud SQL
Creating Google Cloud SQL Instance
- Select the second generation
As you can see 2nd generation has high throughput at
- Enter the instance ID
- Select the Database version (always latest
is the better)
- Choose the region & zone
Tip: always prefer to have SQL instance in the
same region as your existing WordPress server. However, If your
WordPress is not on Google Cloud then choose the nearest
location from your hosting.
- By default, n1-standard-1 is selected
under machine type. Feel free to change if you need to.
- Let it be default chosen storage type as
- Automatic backup, binary logging is selected default –
change if you require to
- Better to define the maintenance window &
time for patching.
Tip: always choose the day & time which is
less busy for your business
- Enter the SQL root password and click
It will take few seconds to create and upon completion, you
will see the instance in the list.
Getting Data Export from existing Database
- Login to current server where MySQL is running
mysqldumpcommand to export the database
mysqldump -u root -p [DATABASE_NAME] >/tmp/export.sql
There are some more procedures to export as explained in
Google docs .
Importing data to Cloud SQL
Let’s create a database and keep the name as exist
- Go to SQL instance
- Click Database tab >> create
- Enter the database name and click create
Now, I will import the data
- Click Import button
- Select the SQL file and click Import
It will take few seconds, and you will get a confirmation upon
Configuring Cloud SQL Access Control
Access control is critical as this is where you define who
should connect to your instance. There are two parts.
Authorizing network – add the IP address who
should allow connecting to Cloud SQL instance
- Go to Access Control >> Add network (under
Authorization sub-tab), add the IP address of WordPress server
User account – good to have a separate user
account created for the WordPress database.
- Go to Users tab and Create user account
- Enter the user and password
Tip: you can keep the user & password as
existing, so you will have minimum configuration change in
Configuring WordPress to Cloud SQL
And the last part, you need to change
wp-config.php to point to Cloud SQL
As usual, take a backup of wp-config.php file
Edit the file using
vi and update the
DB_HOST value to Cloud SQL IP address
/** MySQL hostname */ define('DB_HOST', 'localhost');
/** MySQL hostname */ define('DB_HOST', '22.214.171.124');
126.96.36.199 is my Cloud SQL instance IP which you will find
it under Properties in
Save the file and restart PHP, Nginx on WordPress server
Note: you may also want to connect to Cloud
SQL instance using MySQL client from Compute Engine which is
explained here .
Well done! You have successfully separated
Try to access to ensure it works. Once all right, you may want
to stop the MySQL on WordPress server.
Getting managed MySQL on Google Cloud is quite
straightforward, and I didn’t encounter any
If you are in need to split the database from WordPress server,
then Google Cloud SQL would be a good option. Give a try to see
how it works.